In-Situ Conservation

In-Situ Conservation refers to the focused projects of protecting species and habitats "in the field."  

It includes selecting pristine habitats to be protected as natural reserves. This takes exploration, study, and great amounts of funding to find areas that are worth protecting from human disturbance. Many protected areas are near, or in, biodiversity hotspots. (11)

 Top Priorities

According to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature),

 "18,788 species out of 52,017 so far assessed are threatened with extinction". (18) 

The trouble is, how do conservationists decide which animals to direct funding and research towards? The answer may seem simple: invest more money into the most endangered animals that are closest to extinction. Unfortunately, this is not an easy, clean cut objective, for it is very expensive to fund a conservation project, and some of the most critically endangered species are too hopelessly threatened to invest in. It is also important to conserve the species that play a large role in their ecosystem, and not just the ones that we feel extra affectionate about. (11)

For more information about endangered species, visit: 

Habitat Conservation

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, "Habitat is a combination of environmental factors that provides food, water, cover and space that a living thing needs to survive and reproduce." There are three steps that must be taken to conserve natural habitat: protection, management, and restoration. (19)

In 1973, United States Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in order to protect the nation's endangered wildlife and the ecosystems they live in. it is administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service. The ESA protects species, subspecies, varieties, and even populations, according to the levels of threat. (20)


Yellowstone was the world's first national park.  It was established in 1872 by the United States government to set aside a vast wilderness containing 1,350 species of plants and many species of animals, such as the American Bison or buffalo, all exempt from hunting and habitat destruction. (21)

Governments in other countries have also set up protected areas. The 120,000 protected areas around the globe amount to 14% of the Earth's land surface. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) along with other programs helps to protect and conserve these wildernesses. (22)


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